Sulle immagini di Dio | Jaques Le Goff (1924 – 2014)

Una delle particolarità del Dio dei cristiani deriva dal fatto che gli stessi cristiani lo rappresentarono in immagine, diversamente da ebrei e musulmani il quali, per parte loro, sono in generale aniconici: non solo rifiutano le immagini, ma soprattutto rigettano e condannano la rappresentazione di Dio.

Il Dio dei cristiani viene invece rappresentato; i fedeli, dal più umile contadino sino all’imperatore, possono vederlo in forma umana.

A mio avviso, la decisione di Carlomagno di ammettere le immagini nel cristianesimo latino – l’occasione e il II concilio di Nicea del 787 – costituisce un punto su cui non si insisterà mai abbastanza.Così facendo gli ha preso le distanze da due atteggiamenti egualmente estremi, la distruzione delle immagini nell’un caso, l’iconoclastia, e nell’altro, e all’opposto, la loro adorazione il culto delle immagini, l’iconodulia.

Per i cristiani i latini, romani, le immagini sono uno strumento di devozione, di omaggio a Dio, ma solo Dio è suscettibile di essere adorato, non esiste un culto delle immagini nel mondo del cristianesimo latino.

Nondimeno, la rappresentazione di Dio, quanto riguarda Dio Padre, sembra aver posto per un certo periodo dei problemi. Si tratta infatti della persona della Trinità maggiormente vicina al Dio dell’Antico Testamento. Di conseguenza, in questo [nel medioevo] che un mondo di simboli, per rappresentare Dio Padre si è fatta lungo il corso non ad una figura umana completa ma ad un simbolo.

L’immagine è quella della mano che esce dalle nuvole, la quale esprime al contempo natura e funzione riconosciute al dio feudale: funzione di comando, poiché è una mano che ordina, funzione di punizione, poiché è una mano che punisce; funzione di protezione, poiché una mano che protegge. E nel corso del medioevo, come abbiamo già indicato, quest’ultima funzione rispetto alle altre, diventa preponderante: dio diventa sempre più un buon Dio il Buon Dio.

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